Recent Changes

Wednesday, June 5

  1. page Britain edited ... Political Parties - Labour: the leading left-wing party, with the current leader being Gordon…
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    Political Parties
    - Labour: the leading left-wing party, with the current leader being Gordon Brown(Also known as New Labour as titled by Tony Blair)
    --> dominates along with the Conservative Party, making Britain a two-party dominant system
    --> most popular with the working class, urban centers and London suburbs, Scotland/Wales, and Northern industrial cities (is being affected by immigration issues), middle class split with Conservatives
    -->New Labour: Tony Blair and his "Third Way". He reconciled Labour's emphasis on the welfare with market economy. This method was very pragmatic. It should also be noted that the New Labour did, in fact, retain many of the Labour's traditional policies and stances, but moved significantly towards a more moderate-leftist aura.
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    2:31 am
  2. page Britain edited ... During its long period in opposition Labour was transformed. After a brief lurch towards the l…
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    During its long period in opposition Labour was transformed. After a brief lurch towards the left at the beginning of the 1980s the party gradually moved back towards the political center, weakening its links with the trade union movement and downplaying its previous emphasis on redistribution in an effort to widen its appeal to the middle classes. Mr. Blair’s “new” Labour Party is centrist and un-dogmatic, but traditional supporters regret its abandonment of key tenets of socialist doctrine, and there is resentment over the tight control exercised by Mr. Blair.
    - Conservatives (Tories): traditionalist right-wing party, currently led by David Cameron
    --> dominates along with the Labour Party, making Britain a two-party dominant system
    --> most popular with the upper class, center (urban and rich) London, as well as rural areas, middle class split with Labour
    -->Although the Conservative Party is easily the most successful political party in the UK this century (in terms of general elections won), it suffered its heaviest defeat since 1906 at the general election in 1997 and recovered almost no ground at the last election in 2001. The party has had difficulty shaking off its tired image with voters and overcoming the bitter divisions, particularly over Europe, which have raged within it since Mrs. Thatcher was deposed as leader in 1990.
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    2:28 am
  3. page Britain edited ... -The House of Lords cannot delay a bill that affects taxes or public funds for more than a mon…
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    -The House of Lords cannot delay a bill that affects taxes or public funds for more than a month.
    -If the House of Lords blocks a bill, and the House of Commons passes it again, it is automatically sent for Royal Assent, which it means for all intents and purposes, it becomes law.
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    more powerful housechamber with 650
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    general electorate that exercises the main legislative power in Britain
    -MPs represent single-member districts (plurality) elected in first-past-the-post (winner-take-all) elections: don't have to live in their districts, and aren't expected to necessarily represent the interests of their constituencies
    - Structure: Majority party on one side, minority parties on the other (face each other... makes rowdy debates)
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    2:24 am
  4. page Britain edited ... Parliament: Fusion of Powers- connection of executive and legislative branches in parliamenta…
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    Parliament:
    Fusion of Powers- connection of executive and legislative branches in parliamentary system
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    less powerful house withchamber that is unelected and comprised of hereditary peers, currently has 738 members
    -Lords have little power with the only significant power being the power to postpone laws from being passed for up to one year and also to suggest amendments though they can take no action further than this.
    -In 1997 reforms were promised by Tony Blair. So far the only one that has taken place is the ending of "hereditary peer", the process by which seats are passed down to children. Previously there were 1,219 members. Now there are fewer because of Blair's reform (738).
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    2:20 am
  5. page Russia edited ... Parties: Three biggest political parties include United Russia, the Communist Party of the Rus…
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    Parties: Three biggest political parties include United Russia, the Communist Party of the Russian Federation (supported by the poor and old), and the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia. Previously, parties needed only 5% of the total votes to receive seats in the Duma, but this was amended under Vladimir Putin to 7%, (consolidating power within Putin's party) reducing the competition for United Russia and lowering the number of parties represented in the Duma to 4. The Communist Party still remains the most unified party, getting enough votes to be represented in Duma. Many Russian parties were not based on ideologies but rather around the election of a candidate and his supporters.
    Constitution: Adopted by national referendum on December 12, 1993. It replaced the previous Soviet-era Constitution of April 12, 1978 of Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic following the Russian constitutional crisis of 1993. The constitution provides for a strong presidency.
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    Yeltsin, 1996. The Duma is chosen through a proportional representation electoral system.
    Mass Organizations: Mass organizations consist of regular workers, such as the Nomenklatura or the Apparatchik, that gain rewards with their loyalty. Examples of mass organizations would be the Consumo or Trade Unions.
    Participation
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    2:14 am

Friday, May 31

  1. page Iran edited ... Ayatollah- the highest ranking cleric in the Islamic Shi'ite hierarchy. The supreme leader mus…
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    Ayatollah- the highest ranking cleric in the Islamic Shi'ite hierarchy. The supreme leader must be an Ayatollah.
    Basij Militia- militia established by Ayatollah Khomeini, that acts as an internal security force. They also help to dissolve dissident among the population.
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    and sold). A key faction of any revolution or movement, they are primarily concerned with economic matters (i.e. sanctions, currency disputes)
    Expediency Council - resolves policy disputes between the Guardian Council and the parliament in a way that best serves the country and advises national leaders; it consists of 24 members appointed for three-year terms from the heads of the three branches of government, the six clerics of the Guardian Council, and those appointed by the supreme leader.
    Velayat-e faqih- Khomeini's theory about theocracy in the importance of clergy's supervision of the state
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    4:13 pm
  2. page Iran edited ... One of the Guardian Council's most powerful abilities is its ability to decide who can compete…
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    One of the Guardian Council's most powerful abilities is its ability to decide who can compete in elections. In 2004 and 2005, they disqualified thousands of candidates for both the Majles and the presidential elections, especially reform-minded candidates.
    Assembly of Religious Experts (or Majiles-e Khebregan): evaluates the Supreme Leader; 86 member all-male assembly populated with mostly clerics and directly elected. This assembly drafted the 1979 constitution and is charged with evaluating the performance of the Supreme Leader, who they have the ability to dismiss.
    A comparison can be made to the Electoral College in the United States. Both institutions are directly elected and indirectly choose their respective country's leaders.
    Parliament (Majles, officially the Islamic Consultative Assembly): 290 members elected by direct and secret ballot for four-year terms.
    Is not a rubber-stamp institution; the government often has to lobby strongly to pass laws
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    4:09 pm
  3. page EU edited ... Status of political legitimacy: Currently, the EU is recognized as a supranational group and h…
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    Status of political legitimacy: Currently, the EU is recognized as a supranational group and has a right to be there, yet most citizens of the EU recognize their nations interests are greater than that of the continent. Thus, it could be argued that the EU doesn't have enough legitimacy.
    Migration: It is required that EU States allow "citizens of the Union [to] move and reside freely within the Member States." Freeing up immigration is a measure that exemplifies the EU's goal of unifying the European community. A downside to free immigration is that many eastern Europeans have been migrating westward. This has caused population booms in richer countries such as Spain and major decreases in eastern Europe. [http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/justice_freedom_security/free_movement_of_persons_asylum_immigration/l33152_en.htm]
    The associate membership of Turkey has been somewhat controversial with the Union. At the moment, Turkey is an associate member of both the EU and the Western European Union. Turkey's initial major membership application was made in 1987, but it has been an associate member since 1963
    EU Vocabulary:
    Acquis communauaire- New members must accept these body of laws and regulations before gaining admission into the EU
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    8:15 am

Thursday, May 30

  1. page EU edited ... {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2d/Euro_coins_version_II.png/631px-Euro…
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    {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2d/Euro_coins_version_II.png/631px-Euro_coins_version_II.png}
    The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union among 27 member nations. The EU was established by the Maastricht Treaty on November 1st, 1993 upon the foundations of the European Communities (e.g. European Coal and Steel Community). The EU has developed a single market with standardized laws (in all member states) that allow the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital. The EU devises policy upon trade, agriculture, and regional integration. Sixteen member nations have adopted a common currency known as the euro - in effect creating the Eurozone.
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    supranational organization: ECOWASECOWAS- It is an Economic supranational body in Africa. The comparative country it's related to is Nigeria, and it its important to know that Nigeria takes its role and its leadership as part of that council very seriously.
    The United
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    of it.
    The EU is a supranational organization with the following important institutions:
    The European Commission
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    9:11 pm
  2. page Nigeria edited ... -Sovereignty: power is mostly with the president, who commands the military --> Nigeria is…
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    -Sovereignty: power is mostly with the president, who commands the military
    --> Nigeria is often considered a failed state (a state that can’t provide basic services, and where law an order cannot sustain itself over continuous periods of time. In Nigeria, the police themselves are corrupt, and as a result, the attempt by the government, both local and national, to maintain law and order, is further impeded.)
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    from the IMFIMF. Nigeria has also participated heavily in the emergence of ECOWAS, or the Economic Community of West African States. This supranational organization has ambitions similar to the European Union, including but not limited to economic integration and current low scale security operations.
    -Impact of Globalization: Nigeria still feels the impact of it’s colonial era in the divisive differences of religion and ethnicity
    --> member of OPEC, and provides 1/4 of U.S. oil (see National Economy)
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    5:47 pm

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