Political System
Constitutional monarchyUnitary with some devolution
Federal Representative RepublicUnitary
Theocratic republicUnitary
Federal republicFederalism
Head of state:

-the current monarch
-only symbolic

Head of government:

-prime minister- selected from majority party in House of Commons
-chief executive
-can call “by-elections” (midterm elections)
-can be ousted by “no-confidence vote)

*No dual executive!
Head of state:

-Can't serve more than two consecutive terms at a time
-Term length recently increased from 4 years to 6 years
-can dissolve duma and call new election if it rejects the president’s nomination 3 times
Head of government:

-prime minister
-may be removed as a result of votes of no confidence in the lower house
-selected by President, approved by Duma
Chief of State:

Removes tension between the head of state and top communist leader, can declare war and state of emergency
Premier: presides over the state council (cabinet), a technocratUsually as high-ranking member in the previous government, allows for smooth transition
Successor usually known ahead of time and promoted to high rank

There is only one Chairman, Chairman Mao
President: serves for a single six-year term (sexenio)
Using De facto power, helps choose next successor (El dedazo)
2000- turning point when pres. not from PRI was elected
Dual executive -specified in the constitution
President: -elected by direct vote, chooses cabinet members, writes legislation for parliament, coordinates government and upholds constitution
Supreme Leader: -most powerful political figure, ensures the government’s laws abide to shria law, must be a cleric (not necessarily the highest ranking)Has more power than President (Khameini tiff with Ahmadinejad)
President: is the chief of state, chief executive, commander in chief of the armed forces popularly elected
Switch between the north and south for power and Muslim/ChristianException: Goodluck Jonathan taking second term

Elected by universal suffrage
Fusion of powers: b/w executive and legislator

House of Lords:
-upper, less powerful
-“hereditary peer” (passed down to children

House of commons:
-lower, more powerful house w/650 members
-single-member districts elected in first-post-the-past (winner take all elections
-minority places watchdog (criticizes the majority party)
-Backbenchers: sit in the back of the house (hope to earn seat w/party loyalty
-Cabinet: selected from majority party, governed by collective responsibility: behind closed doors they may disagree, but publically all agree
-shadow cabinet: chosen from leading minority party
Bi-cameral Federal Assembly
Upper house: federation council
-approves duma’s bills, presidential appointments,
Lower house: state Duma
-more powerful
-elected through proportional elections
-confirms the appointment of the prime minister
National Peoples’ congress: in constitution has the largest amount of power, in reality is all controlled by the chief of state and Politburo (party leaders)
Supreme People’s court –a very weak institution
-no independence
-to attract western investment, moved towards contact law (legal reform)
-trying the cases with most influence, supervising the work of local courts and special courts at every level, and giving judicial explanation of judicial process

-upper house, elected for 6 years, can’t run consecutively

Chamber of Deputies:
-lower house, elected f
or 3 year term, can’t run consecutively
Elected by proportional representation for 200 of the seats, and 300 to be elected through single member districts
When PAN came into congress, they created a divided government
Council of Guardians: approves laws, 12 member council, 6 clerics appointed by the Supreme Leader and 6 lawyers appointed by the Chief Judiciary, has joint veto power with supreme leader over legislation. Can decide which candidates go onto the ballot, have isolated reformist and moderate candidates in recent years. (upper house)
Assembly of Religious experts: evaluates the supreme leader, directly elected
Parliament (Majiles): 290 members elected by direct and secret votes for 4 years, non-Islamic groups and women are allowed, NOT a rubberstamp
Expediency Council: resolves disputes b/w guardian council and parliament for best interest of the country
National Assembly:
Bicameral, popularly elected to 4 year terms, both houses make legislation that doesn’t become law until passed in both houses and is consented by the president.
Senate: members from all 36 states and one federal capital territory
House of Reps: 360 members
strong sense of party identification
Labour: leading left-wing
-aka new labour
-most popular with working class, urban centers, London burbs...
Conservatives (Tories): traditionalist right-wing
-most popular with right-wing party
-most successful party (Mrs. Thatcher made divisions)
Liberal Dems: centrist-left party
-pop. With wavering b.w other two parties-elections can be called at any time within a 5 year period
Russia is dominated by a single party (United Russia), however other parties do participate. Restrictions placed on parties (previously parties only need 5% of the vote to receives seats, but then changed to 7%) have restricted the influence of the many parties of the early republic to those seen below.United Russia- ideologically difficult to define, except "pro-Putin
Communist Party of Russian Federation-most unified party
Liberal Democratic Party of Russia- neither liberal nor democratic, this party is a highly controversial and nationalistic one
During Soviet Union only communist party was permitted (like China)
-elections can held every 4 years
Communist party. Other parties may exist but they have to have permission from the communist party (have no vital role)
National Action Party (PAN): - free trade, pro catholic, right wing, anti-corruption, and democratic reform
Party of Democratic Revolution (PRD): -left of center opposition party to the PRI
Institutional Revolution Party (PRI): -relied on patron-client relationships, during power were very restrictive of power
very weak, more like coalitions rather than formal parties, used to be illegal until 1998
two main groups of political parties - Conservative vs. Reformist
the Guardian Council, however, must vet all political candidates to make sure their views do not violate velayat-e-faqih
since 2009, only conservative candidates are allowed to run (think of what happened to Rafsanjani)
ethnically based which regionalizes the national politics
-most people identify more with their ethnic division than national identity especially since government isn’t dependent on taxing the people
people’s democratic party (PDP): connected with the military
All Nigeria People’s Party (ANPP): conservative
Alliance for Democracy Party (AD): most democratic, no presidential candidate but gets 9% of the vote
Political Efficacy
Interest groups play a role in the shape of the bill not how it’s played out
High voter turn out
Nomenkaltura or Apparatchik: mass organizations of workers
Putin's continued Presidency (staying for another 12 years) has discouraged russian voters. The resentment lead to decrease in the loss of ruling party in russia and demonstrations in Moscow.
strong control of all economic sectors, moving towards privatization
Control over corruption: punishable by death – protects legitimacy
Interest groups: allows for the existence of Communist Youth League, All China Federal Trade Union, serve as a way to connect to government
Media is controlled and suppressed
Direct elections that are verified by the Federal Electoral Institute which is independent of any party control
Reliant of patron-client relationships
Judiciary: a cleric appointed by supreme leader
All candidates must be approved by guardian council
Anyone can vote
All must abide to Islamic law
Election fraud rampant
Universal suffrage for voting
Participation limited to casting votes
High levels of poverty

consquence of one-child family policy = an increase in median age

Rebels/ Opposition within country
Muslim integration in Europe
Terrorism Act= Reduced civil liberties for suspected terrorists

Northern Ireland- devolution to area has decreased physical violence

Scotland-Vote of devolution in 2014
Chechnyan rebels
2002 Moscow Theatre Hostage Crisis
2004 Breslan School takeover
Russian fear separatist movement will spread- this led to appointment of regional governors,centralized govt
Taiwan- China has said they will use force to merge Taiwan and China

Tibet- 1959 democratic reforms in Tibet= mass destruction of temples and oppression of monks, Dalai Lama's exile

Vinjand Uygnur Autonomous Region- nearly 10 million muslims live here. China has cracked down significantly since 9/11/2001, ethnic violence, in 2009, 197 killed, 9 nationalist terrorists executed
Zapatista Rebellion in Chiapas-
Uprising to support Indian land rights and opposition to globalization, 12 day battle with police. Cease-fire ever since/ population and economic isolation
Baha'i not tolerated as a religious minority (more modern, say that all profits are equal)

Hezbollah are thugs who patrol streets on motorcycles enforcing more strict interpretations of religion (accepted)

The Azeris and Kurds are also large minorities - the Kurds have, in the past, provided some tensions for the government but have been repressed for the most part

The Reformists have also been repressed by the government due to the current Conservative majority.
Religious and ethnic opposition

There are many minorities in Nigeria - the fragmentation is due to how Africa as a whole was 'carved up' during the 1885 Berlin Conference. The Hausa, the Yoruba, and the Igbo people are the largest groups.

Boko Haram is a large source of tension in Nigeria because of it's islamic extremist viewpoint and it's attacks on Christian civilians and church bombings.

MEND is a large source of tension in the Niger Delta region because of it's unorthodox approach to protecting the rights of Nigerian citizens to the oil in the region. There have been attacks and sabotage of foreign oil postings in the region, and violence has been used repeatedly to try and protect the environment.