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General Vocabulary is the study of vocabulary that will likely appear on the exam - and of our favorite military general, of course. The following is an expanding comprehensive list of terms judged to be 'general' in nature.

accountability:
the concept that government officials are responsible to and serve at the pleasure of constituents or elected officials (and that they may be removed from office by those electors or officials). Connect this to legitimacy, because when the government serves the people, its legitimacy increases as well, and the people respect the government.

“aggregation of political preferences”

Austerity: Lowering the government's national debt by lowering spending and raising taxes.

Authoritarian government: an authoritarian government is characterized as having one or several, usually unelected, leaders that posses [[#|complete]]power over policy making. China is an example of an authoritarian government.

Autocracy: Government in which one person has uncontrolled or unlimited authority over others.

Autonomy: The degree to which a state can implement policies independent of the populace or the amount of sovereignty a nation-state can exercise in the global environment

Balance of payments: A record of all transactions made by one particular country during a certain period of time.

Bicameral Legislature: a government assembly with two chambers or houses.

Bilateral opposition: Centrist parties or governments undermined from both sides.

Broadening: Allowing an organization to expand. This concept is usually applied to the European Union when it allows other countries to become members of the EU. In other words, this is the expansion of EU intergovernmental relationships.

BureaucracySections of government, usually under the controll of the executive branch, that specialize in certain areas. Examples of American bureaucracies are the FAA which specializes in aviation and the FCC which regulates media.

Budgetary Deficit: The result of government spending in any one fiscal year exceeding the government revenue in that year.

Catch-all Party: A political party whose aim is ot gather support from a broad range of citizens through a de-emphasis of ideology and an emphasis on pragmatism, charismatic leadership, and marketing.

Capitalism: An economic system that emphasizes private property rights and market mechanisms.

Carrying Capacity: The maximum development/population level that an ecosystem can sustain.

Civil society: Refers to the space occupied by voluntary associations outside the state, for example, professional associations (lawyers, doctors, teachers), trade unions, student and women's groups, religious bodies, and other voluntary association groups (everything from a bowling team to your French club). The term is similar to society, although civil society implies [[#|a degree]]of organization absent from the more inclusive term society.

Clientelism: The exchange of votes for favors; involves a principal, an agent, and a 'client.' Know that, in China, these patron-client relationships are known as 'guanxi' which roughly translates to 'connections'.

Codified law: Laws that have been collected and created via legislative processes, as opposed to common law, which is based upon legal precedents. These laws tend to be very specific.

Coercive Participation: Political action organized by ruling authorities rather than by interest groups or civil society groups.

Coinciding cleavages : Differences in identity that align (for example in Nigeria; southern, industrial, and Christian)

Common law: A collection of legal precedents created over many years in courts that functions as the law of the land. Britain, for example, does not have a formal written constitution, but instead is governed by common law.

Constitution: The set of fundamental principles that dictate the organization and governing functions of a state.

Constitutionalism: Degree to which government limits its powers.

Corporatism: A system of interest representation in which the government allows certain groups privileged access to the policy-making decisions in exchange for loyalty. The PRI Party in Mexico set up three critical groups for labor interests, peasants and business. This system tends to limit representation. These groups give input on government policies that are made behind closed doors and in a consensual manner. This is opposite of pluralism where many private groups compete in public forums to change policy. Corporatism is also know as elitism and is called the "Iron Triangle" in American politics (legislator-interest group-bureaucrat)

Coup d’etat: A forceful, extra-constitutional action resulting in the removal of a leader from office. Generally, this is done via the military. Think Nigeria!

Cross-cutting cleavages: A term that refers to the way that one subdivision of society, e.g. race, religion, socioeconomic status, is never wholly contained within another. For example, black Americans can be found in wealthy and poor areas of the country and practice a variety of different religions.

[[#|Debt]]Crisis: This is when a country spends faster than it is [[#|earning]]. An example of this can be found in Nigeria who finds themselves in a [[#|debt crisis]]because they have failed to demonstrate a record of sound economic.

Debt Trap: When a country's government borrows much more money from foreign lenders than its revenue, resulting in a spiral of increasing debt. Often the money borrowed in necissary to keep political stability. This occurs often in third world countries such as Iran.

Deepening: To give more powers to a country. This is associated with the EU in the expansion of the EU's supranationalist relationship (giving the EU more power as a single entity, "deepening" ties within its members)

Democratization: The transition to a more democratic political regime (rule by the people) or the process of developing democratic states. This may be evidenced by increased competition in elections, increasing debate and freedom of the press, the expansion of suffrage to new groups, increased transparency, or various other signs of a shift toward more democratic practices.

Dependency Theory: Belief that third world (developing) countries will never gain economic independence from wealthy countries in the north, due to the developed countries' dominance of foreign direct investment in the third world countries.

Devolution: The giving of powers previously held by the central government to subnational levels of government such as regional, state, and local. This can be observed in Great Britain currently where power is being given to Scotland and Wales. The formation of the Scottish Parliament, National Assembly for Wales, and the Northern Ireland Assembly are evidence of this. Another example is the expansion of local government operations in China. America takes part in devolution when it allows more local matters such as schools, roads, and certain criminal alws to be legislated by the state as opposted to national government.

Diplomatic recognition: when a state recognizes the status of another state’s government.

Direct Democracy: (Pure democracy) A type of government characterized by citizens voting on issues raised as opposed to their representative in a congress or parliament. Citizens are the decision makers and are direct participants in their governmnet, which increases political efficacy. A modern form of direct democracy is public referendum. This can also be referred to as grass-roots democracy. Some advantages of direct democracy are that legislation can be passed very quickly and can bypass the arduous legislation process, and that it allows single citizen's voices to be heard instead of them being heard indirectly through a congressman who may not share all of the same beliefs like in a representative democracy. A disadvantage of direct democracy is that voters can and often are uneducated about the issues presented to them.

Dominant party systems : When one party becomes dominant to such an extent that victory at elections is considered a formality. Other political parties may exist, but those parties are pretty insignificant in shaping and effecting policy and winning elections. Examples include the PDP in Nigeria and United Russia in Russia.

ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States): The organization established in 1975 among the sixteen governments in West Africa. Its goals are to strengthen and broaden the economies in the region through the removal of trade barriers among its members (such as import quotas and domestic content laws), freedom of movement for citizens, and monetary cooperation. Being part of ECOWAS has strengthened Nigeria's government.

Elite and Class theory: Group theory that revolves around an economic strata of society controlling the policy agenda. It says that society is divided along class lines and that an upper-class elite rules. Wealth is seen as the basis of power, and a few powerful Americans are the policymakers

Elitism: Seen mostly in corporatist systems when the government sponsors key interest groups as a way of seeking public input from a limited number of approved sources. It is also a belief that the views of the elite should be taken most seriously in government. It can also describe a system in which the power is concentrated in the hands of the elite.

Elite recruitment: how political leaders make their way into government office and how they rise, many times has to do with class, gender, ethnicity, religion, education, etc. For example, in Nigeria, there is an informal agreement among political leaders to rotate the presidency between the north and the south.

Empirical: When something that is based in fact or sensory evidence

EU: The supra-national organization of European countries deisgned to promote economic and political cooperation in Europe. The EU was initially intended to simplify trade between member nations and has since broadened its powers to policies on immigration and economic regulations, including the creation of a single EU currency, the Euro (which Great Britiain opted out of). Initially designed to be a weak confederation of independent states, but recent history has seen the European central government consolidating powers, especially in terms of economic independence.

Export-led growth: The stimulation of growth of the national economy
by the economic strategy of encouraging an increase in export of goods.

Extraterritoriality: Privilege of Europeans in colonial situations to have their own laws and courts.

Failed state: System in which the government loses the ability to provide even the most basic services. Examples include Nigeria and current Iraq. Often not able to enforce its laws uniformly because of corruption, military interference, high crime rates, or judicial ineffectiveness. The state’s governmental institutions may still exist, but the leaders are only figureheads. Their control is typically limited to only a small portion of the country. For example, in Nigeria, there are spots on roads where some of the youth have literally taken sections of the road away, and drivers must pay the youth to put the road back together. The government, as part of the failed state, isn't able to stop the youth. Some common examples of failed states include Somalia, Sudan, and Zimbabwe.

Federalism:​ a system of government in which sovereignty is constitutionally divided between a central governing authority and constituent political units such as states or provinces.

Federal System of Government: In this type of government, power is shared between the national and regional/state/local governments. Unlike the unitary system of government, local and regional governments in a federal system can have significant budget control. Also, the taxes and police force are controlled by multiple decentralized governments. Countries that portray this type of system are USA, Russia and Mexico (both with unitary tendencies), and Nigeria.

Formal arrangements for ethnic minorities: This is showcased best in China where different minority regions also known as Special Administrative Regions where the law upheld in other places in the nation is upheld differently. There minorities face increased or decreased pressure from the government depending on the state and the specific circumstance. This formal arrangement differs greatly from the informal political polarization that occurs in nations like Nigeria or Britain where there are informal groupings of political majorities or minorities (ie the religious separation in Nigeria and the different party separation in the UK)

Fundamentalism: refers to religious groups dedicated to the literal teachings of a faith. This can be seen in northern Nigeria where Sharia law is enforced by Muslim fundamentalists.

GDP: Gross Domestic Product measures a country's annual economic output. This can generally be used to determine the wealth and living standards in a country. However, this can also be completely inaccurate in countries with major social cleavages. eg. China's urban population is much better off than its rural farmers. Northern Mexico is much more industrialized than the South, and thus has higher living standards.

GDP per capita: Measures average annual output per individual. Calculation: Total GDP / Total Population

Globalization: Idea of interconnectedness between countries. Deals with interconnectedness/interdependence in the economic, social, technological, cultural, etc. aspects of life within these countries. An example of globalization is the increasing connectedness by Mexico with other countries, specifically NAFTA (includes the United States, Canada, and Mexico) in which the member countries trade with little regulations. AKA McWorld (KFC in China) Free trade is often a major component of globalism by increasing what is on the global market with international buisness as opposed to high tariffs and local subsides which decrease foriegn trade.

Gini Coefficient: An indicator of income inequality.

Government: Institutions that create public policy. Its four main functions are: allocating scarce resources authoritatively, providing public goods and services, defending the country from invasion, and maintaining social, political, and economic order.

Hard Currency: Money that can be traded openly on international markets.

Head of Government: the chief officer of the executive branch of the government often presiding over a cabinet.

Human Development Index: An attempt to improve on economic comparisons by including social welfare statistics in comparisons between nations.

Hyperinflation: A large, continuing increase in price level without any tendency toward equilibrium. One way to distinguish this from regular inflation is the period length during which it is measured. Hyperinflation is often measured in weeks or months, while normal inflation is generally measured over the course of a year. For examples, check stories about 1920's Germany and current day Zimbabwe. Applies to Russia and Mexico during the 90's

Some fun pictures relating to hyperinflation:

= 1 beer
= 1 beer

Deutchmarks became so worthless that they were worth more as children's building blocks than currency
Deutchmarks became so worthless that they were worth more as children's building blocks than currency


Hyperpluralism: Group theory characterized by many interest groups vying for control resulting in a government that is tied up in gridlock.

Illiberal Democracy (Partial or Procedural Democracy): A political system where free elections take place but civil liberties are curtailed and/or elections have become less competitive and fraudulent. Citizens may lack choices of candidates with varied points of view or the necissary information to make informed decions regarding candidataes running for office. Democratic institutions, such as elections, may be present but are often just for show. Russia is a growing example of such a case because they have elections, but as we have seen in the recent crack down on dissenters, citizens have lost many civil liberties, including freedom of speech. Decreases in the competitiveness of elections are also indicators of a trend toward illiberal democracy. Applies to Russia and Iran.

Independent courts: Independent courts are vital to a liberal democracy. They exist when the judiciary of a country is not affected by the whims of the legislature or the executive, and instead maintains a safe distance from these branches of government. For example, an independent court would not be used as a tool for a leader to justify his actions, and would instead hold the government accountable to the state's law.

Interdependence: A relationship between two or more political actors characterized by mutual dependence. Each actor is affected by the actions and decisions of others because each actor is tied through extensive political, economic, or social commitments (eg. America and Mexico).

International Monetary Fund (IMF): An international organization consisting of 185 countries. They together observe the global financial system (such as exchange rates and balance of payments), along with providing financial assistance to countries in need. Often ask that countries go through various structural adjustment (privatization, lower tariffs, reduced subsidies) in order to receive the money (Conditionality associated with IMF Loans). They only ADVISE countries to go through policy and never enforce it thoroughly before giving funds and seems to be a bit ineffective (as seen in Nigeria).

Imperialism: The policy of colonizing other countries by establishing empires. Mexico and Nigeria were countries that were both imperialized by other countries. England was one of the major imperialistic countries. Imperialism is dangerous for the imperialized country; Nigeria cannot sustain a democracy largely because of the ethnic divisions that English imperialism strengthened.

Import Substitution: Nationalization of key industries and a general movement of the economy inwards to be more self sufficient. High tariffs on both imports and exports. Designed to keep money inside the country, allow for countries to break economic dependence on more developed countries, and to escape from debt traps. Parastatals (Government created/sponsored corporations/commecial entities) are important parts of import substitution because they produce goods that otherwise would have to be imported. This was originally endorsed by LDCs, but since they have failed, LDCs have gone towards globalization.
Example: Mexico under President Cardenas

Indirect Rule: When colonial rulers often gave great powers to certain native people and groups to run colonies.

Judicial review: The ability of an independent judiciary to rule on the constitutionality of executive and legislative branch actions. Judicial review is only possible in a system with certain checks of power. For example, Great Britain does not have judicial review because their legislature has supremacy.

Large-Scale Industrialization : Industrialization that is occurring rapidly on a very large scale. Examples of this include the industrial revolutions in Great Britain and the United States, as well as the current development in urban China. This type of industrialization generally occurs only in the worlds largest economies.

Legitimacy : The degree to which people accept and endorse their government's right to rule. Sources of legitimacy include constitutions, competitive elections, religion, chances for citizens to be involved in government, openness in the functions of political institutions - called transparency, sports events (Beijing 2008), low unemplyment rates, a strong military (Nigeria, Iran, China), and a healthy economy. Please remember that in AP Comparative government we only discuss internal legitimacy as opposed to using the tempting international examples of legitimacy.

Liberalization - A process of converting any kind of closed economy into an open market economy. The two major points of economic liberalization are letting international currency exchange rates float (market forces for currency value) and the privatization of previously nationalized industries. For FRQ's always remember to include these two aspects of liberalization. Applies majorly to Russia during the 90's, England under PM Margaret Thatcher.

Linkage institution: Means by which individuals can express preferences regarding the development of public policy, for example participation in an interest group.

Loose construction: Liberal interpretation of the constitution. An example of this can be found using the U.S. Constitution where Alexander Hamilton thought one could take whatever action was needed as long as there wasn't a document stating you couldn't. Loose constructionists believe in finding loopholes.

Maastricht Treaty: Established European citizenship and established for a common currency to be developed

Market socialism: The economic policy that introduces free market economics to a socialist economic system. The People's Republic of China uses market socialism to acheive economic growth while attempting to maintain economic equality among citizens.

Microcredit: Refers to the extension of very small loans to those in poverty, designed to encourage entrepreneurship

Multi National Corporations (MNC's): Large companies that operate in many different countries.

Multiple-party systems: A system in which multiple political parties have the capacity to gain control of government separately or through a coalition (Ex-US, UK).

NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement. This outlaws tariffs and trade restrictions between America, Canada, and Mexico.

Nation: a group of people bound to one another through culture, ethnicity, language and religion.

Nationalization : Nationalization is when a government turns private businesses into government owned, or public businesses. Commonly used by socialists and other leftist groups. Often characterized by governemnt control of prices and high tariffs on imports to prevent competition with the government owned industries from foriegn options. This has occurred in many countries over the years, including Iran, Mexico, the United Kingdom, and Venezuela. Hugo Chavez has recently nationalized the oil industry in Venezuela. This is similar to the British nationalization of oil in the 1970s. Russia privatized the oil industry in the early 1990s, but the government has taken more control over this industry in the last 6 years. Another example is the nationalization of subsoil rights in Mexico, where the government claims ownership to all oil and mined substances in the country.

Neoliberalism: Also known as laissez-faire economics. A strategy for economic development that calls for free markets, balanced budgets, privatization, free trade, and minimal government intervention in the economy. Characterized by low taxes and low government spending, often at the expense of social programs.

Newly Industrializing Countries (NIC's): Third world countries that have developed strong industrial bases.

Non Governmental Organizations (NGO's): Private, usually issue-oriented, groups that perform public services and work to shape public policy.

Normative: A type of statement expressing a value judgment about a subject, e.g. "The government should attempt to privatize national industries for the good of the people".

One-party systems: A type of party system in which a single political party forms the government and no other parties are permitted to run candidates for election. This is most famously seen in China, with the Communist Party dominating over political culture and decision.

Parastatals: Corporations set up under import substitution to help the new national infrastructure and improve the economy by producing goods it formerly was forced to import. An example would include Jarritos, the Mexican soft drink company established in order to end Mexico's reliance on imports of American soft drinks, as well as the failed Nigerian steel industry

Parliamentary Democracy: A democratic system marked by a fusion of the legislative and executive branches of government (such as in Great Britain where the prime minister is both Head of Goevernment and the chief legislator)

Patron-Client Relations: Neo-feudal relations in which the government and the governed have a mutual exchange of benefits and obligations.

Pluralism : It is a group theory that involves different groups all vying for control of the policy agenda. No single group emerges, forcing all groups to compromise. Generally considered the opposite of corporatism, this is when interest groups have free rein to organize and act, often resulting in many interest groups. The United States is considered hyper-pluralist due to its extremely developed lobbying industry. Proportional representation : an electoral system in which citizens vote in favor of a party rather than a particular individual. The percentage of votes received determines the number of representatives the party is allotted in Parliament. The party then chooses the representatives. Proportional representation promotes party loyalty, increases voter turnout, and causes the parties to become more ideological.

Policy agenda: An agenda which results from the interaction of linkage institutions.

Political culture: The attitudes, beliefs, and symbols that influence political behavior; often defined in terms of specific national political-cultural orientations.

Political Cleavage:​ national, ethnic, linguistic, and religious divisions that affect political allegiances and policies.

Political Efficacy- The belief that your participation in the government matters, and your faith in the government of the country in which you are a citizen. Political efficacy is often highest in states that provide many opportunities for citizens to be involved in government through means such as more frequent elections, primary elections, party membership, town hall meetings, and public speeches/parades/debates/events. In rentier states such as Iran and Nigeria, the government's downfalls are covered up with gas subsidies and low taxes. Low taxes result in low political efficacy and much apathy towards government as it is not the citizens' money being spent. The people are content with the "free candy" the government is handing out and disregarding the ineffectiveness of their government.

Political party: A group of people joined together by common philosophies/ideologies and common approaches with the aim of getting candidates elected in order to develop and implement public policy. It is characterized by an organization that is responsible to the electorate and has a role in government.

Political socialization - The process by which people, particularly children, gain their political and ideological beliefs. The primary vehicle for political socialization is one's own parents.

Politics: Who gets what, when, how, and why. The art of the possible. It is the use of intrigue or strategy in obtaining any position of power or control, as in business, university, etc. The process by which groups of people make collective decisions.

Prebendalism: The corrupt use of high level positions to gain personal wealth. It is extremely prevalent in Nigeria, where it has an ethnic connotation; political higher-ups will grant precious jobs and economically beneficial positions to members of their ethnic group, allowing these people an "in" to the economy and wealth. Another name for clientelism in Nigeria which is based on ethnic lines.

Privatization : The selling off of state-owned companies. Allowing for private business to form outside of the control of the central government. Now being experienced to some extent in China. It is difficult for governments like China to allow this because it could lead to a loss of guaranteed employment, guaranteed health care, and other benefits guaranteed by a control economy. Examples: Privatization of BP(British Petroleum) and British Leyland(Automotive Company) in Britain under PM Margaret Thatcher.

Proportional representation: an electoral system in which citizens vote in favor of a party rather than a particular individual. The percentage of votes received determines the number of representatives the party is allotted in Parliament. The party then chooses the representatives. Proportional representation promotes party loyalty, increases voter turnout, and causes the parties to become more idealogical. Allows for many different parties as opposed to single member districts which promote 2-3 parties becuase even if a aprty does not win any sort of majority it can still gain representation. Some say it encourages radicalism not present in homogonized parties common in single member districts.

Public Policy: The final action(s) taken by government in promotional, regulatory, or distributive form. It can be generally defined as the course of action or inaction with regard to a particular issue or set of issues. It is commonly embodied in constitutions, legislative acts, and judicial decisions.

Regime: The institutions and practices that endure from government to government, such as the constitutional order in a democracy. Regimes are usually long lasting. Generally synonymous with government of political system.

Regime change: An overthrow of a government that is considered illegitimate in the eyes of its citizenry and the world community (Ex: Iraq-Sadam Hussein).

Rentier Economy: An economy heavily supported by state expenditure, while the state itself continuously receives rent from abroad. In a rentier state, the government lends out land to companies to use. An example would be Iran, in which the government lends oil rich lands to energy companies to extract oil from.

Rentier State: A state that derives a substantial portion of its revenue on a regular basis from payments by foreign concerns in the form of rent. The rentier state is in itself a subsystem of a rentier economy. An example of a rentier state is Iran, whose oil exports earn $50 billion a year and provide more than 70% of the revenues for the Iranian government. In countries, like Iran and Mexico, taxes are low, but the major problem is that these countries depend on commodities like oil. A remtier state profits largely from exporting natural resources.

Representative Democracy: A form of government that relies on the consent of people and is often called a republican government. Citizens do not vote directly on laws but instead vote for candidates with similar views on more general issues to represent them and their needs when legislation is being written.

Revolution: When the populace of a country attempts to overthrow and thouroughly replace the current governmental system. Also, the term Revolution also applies to any systematic attempt to change the culture of a region or country (ex: the Cultural Revolution in China).

Single Member District : An electoral system in which only one representative is chosen from each constituency. This is also called First Past the Post (FPTP). Compared to a proportional system, a single member district has representatives that are less ideological and less class based because there are generally only 2-3 major competitive parties vying for representation in the government, forcing these parties to be broad-based coalitions (Big Tent) in order to incorporate more people. Campaigns are more candidate centered than party centered. Single Member district leads to 2-party system, winner takes all.

Socialism : A variety of beliefs in the public ownership of the means of production and an egalitarian distribution of wealth and income. As an economic system, socialism is characterized by state or community ownership of the means of production. (Nationalization, etc..)

Social movements : grass-root movements that demand reforms in social practices and government policies. Social movements are more informal than interest groups and work toward social or political change.

Social Services : Services that give opportunities to the disadvantaged sector of the population to grow socially and economically so that they develop into productive and self-reliant citizens. Great Britain, a welfare state, provides many social services (like health care). Conservative Americans want to avoid giving out social services.

Sovereignty: having freedom from external control and complete independent authority over a territory.

Sphere of influence: Semicolonial area under control of major power.

State: a political entity with its own government and sovereignty, needs a formal territory ('formal territory' is often measured by international recognition, trade treaties, or establishment as a UN member state).

Strict Constructionists: Strict constructionists favored a strict reading of the Constitution and especially of the elastic clause, in order to limit the powers of the central government. Led Thomas Jefferson, strict constructionists embodied the ideological core of the Republican Party.

Strong state: a strong state is characterized as having little difficulty in carrying out and/or enforcing policy, and having relatively little governmental institutions (probably impossible to have absolutely no corruption).

Structural adjustments : Changes in policy that the IMF or World Bank and other groups mandate (as conditions packaged with loans) in order for a country to receive funding or to get lower interest rates for existing loans. These structural adjustments typically include decreasing the state’s tariffs and increasing privatization in the general interest of integrating the state into the world market.

Substantive Democracy: a form of democracy in which the outcome of the decisions is real democracy. In other words, it is a democracy that functions in the interest of the people. HOWEVER, even where suffrage is extended to the entire adult population, it does not necessarily qualify it as a substantive democracy.

Supranational: A term applying to organizations consisting of multiple member states whose actions affect multiple member states. The EU is the most prominent example of a supranational organization, as well as ECOWAS for the Africa continent.

Supranational courts: These courts have the power to hear cases pertaining to a dispute between states. Also, war criminals and those wanted by multiple countries are tried in these courts as well.

Theocratic oversight: this is when the governmental system of a coutry cedes some degree of control to religious officials, such as the Supreme Leader in Iran.

Totalitarian regime: a totalitarian regime is characterized as having almost no restraint on governmental authority, as government can control most facets of economy and society.

Transnational networks (NGOs): An alternative name for NGO's, a specialized, non-governmental organization that is created by a person or 'legal person' (a body defined as a person such as a corporation) and operates independently from the government. Similar to interest groups, they pursue a specific social or political goal without being as all-encompassing as political parties. Some such as the World Bank operate internationally.

Two-party systems: Election systems that feature two dominant parties (as opposed to dominant or single party systems, with one party). Two party systetms generally appear in countries that elect representatives through single-member districts. Elections based on single-member districts promote two dominant parties because any candidate who comes in 3rd place gets just as much power as a candidate who comes in 2nd place: none.

Unitary system of government: A type of government that centralizes all the powers of government into one central authority. This governmental system is a top to down model, in which an elite group of decisionmakers pass down orders to state and then local levels. Great Britain is a good example of such a state. Many countries such as Mexico have a unitary system of government, however, they wish to portray themselves as being a bottom up democracy.

Voluntarism: Belief that human will can change the world.

Weak state: a weak state is characterized as having difficulty carrying out and/or enforcing policy, and having widespread corruption in governmental institutions.

World Bank : Mainly western banks that give loans to more developing countries. Also funds the UN a lot. These projects usually involve larger, infrastructure projects. A group of five international organizations loans money mostly to developing countries. Loans money for the purpose of improving human development, agriculture and rural development , environmental protection, infrastructure , and governance. Loans or grants for specific projects are often linked to wider policy changes in the sector or the economy. Many criticize the World Bank for its purpose due to the specifications needed to recieve a loan or grant. While any loan should help the purpose of helping human development, the eyes of the World Bank and the country itself have different view of what it means to be benefiting the area. The World Bank has strict qualifications needed for the loan so they believe the money is worth spending and the country will repay within required time. Many countries do not have the resources to repay such amounts to repay a loan and therefore usually does not recieve a loan from the World Bank.

World Trade Organization (WTO) : An international organization that has jurisdiction within trade issues between various countries. If a country believes another country is violating a trade agreement, they may bring it up to the WTO. The two countries must come to an agreement in how to move forward if both are guilty of violating the agreement or the organization itself will have their own agreement written up, and what says, goes. It is in the countries interest to come up with a joint agreement so both parties feel they have equal representation throughout the bill and not one country is favored over the other. Ex: Brazil vs. U.S.- antiviral drugs: The U.S. is a great distributer of medication to Brazil in which in return to its people gives the medication for free. Brazil wanted to start its own companies within Brazil so costs could be lowered and provide even more medicine to more of its citizens, but was still under contract with the U.S. in which the years the U.S. would provide the medication was not up yet. Both were found of somewhat violating the agreement and came up with a joint resolution in the interest of both countries. examples of legitimacy.