Great Britain's Election System



Chief Executive

British elections are exclusively for legislative posts. The Prime Minister isn't elected as a prime minister, but as an MP from a single constituency(electoral district).


Legislature
Prior to Parliament's fixed term law in 2011, there was no fixed term for parliament. The PM would dissolve Parliament triggering new Commons elections within a 5 year time frame allowing citizens to vote for a Commons member at least once every five years.

Starting in 2015, Commons elections will be fixed term every 5 years unless (add details)
elections fixed term every 5 years unless..
1. a vote of no confidence is passed by a simple majority and no confidence motion in any new government formed is passed
2. a motion for a general election is agreed upon by 2/3 of the total number of seats in the Commons



General elections for representatives in the House of Commons. There are 650 MPs in the House of Commons.

Commons is first past the post, plurality wins election system, which induces a two-three party system, as it exaggerates the margin of victory of the largest party in that region. Other parties (like the Scottish National Party, Sinn Fein (Ireland), and Plaid Cymru (Wales)) do win constituencies in the various regions.




Mexico's Election System

Chief Executive

Until the 1990’s the future President was chosen by the outgoing PRI President. With the creation of the Federal Electoral Institute in 1990 and election reforms in 1996 under President Zedillo, the dominance of PRI was ended in 2000. President’s are nominated by their respective parties and chosen through direct elections. The winning candidate must win a plurality. The president serves for a single, six-year term, called the sexenio. In 2000, Vincente Fox of the PAN party defeated the PRI candidate to win the presidency. In 2006, the election was very close between the PRD and PAN candidates, but the PAN candidate, Felipe Calderon, won. The other candidate, Obrador, did not accept defeat and caused some tension. In the most recent election, the PRI was returned to power under Enrique Nieto.


Legislature
Mexico's Legislature is called Congress of the Union and is composed of two chambers: the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate.
The Senate has 128 seats, 96 members- direct popular vote for six-year terms (sexeno); 32 seats-proportional representation.
The lower house is the Cámara de Diputados has 500 seats- 300 members- popular vote to three-year terms; 200 seats- proportional representation.


Nigeria's Election System


Chief Executive

Although Nigeria has a multi-party system where each party nominates a candidate for the position of President, the PDP is the dominant party in Nigeria. The President is elected by the people and must win a simple majority and 25% of the votes in at least two-thirds of Nigeria's' states. (Add more detail) The President is responsible for making appointments, assenting to and signing legislation, and calling the National Assembly to a sitting, among other duties.


President’s are limited to two four year terms.

It is also a custom that presidents in Nigeria switch religions between each Christians and Muslims each Presidency.

Legislature
As it is a federal system, the Nigerian legislature is a bicameral body known as the National Assembly. Modeled after the United States legislature, the National Assembly is composed of a Senate and House of Representatives that are both elected to four year terms. The House of Representatives has 360 members and is elected using a first-past-the-post system that exaggerates the winning party's victory. Despite the dominance of Goodluck Jonathan's People's Democratic Party in the legislature, the executive and the National Assembly have had some difficulty cooperating.
(Add more detail)
The National Assembly was established by the Nigerian Constitution. The House of Representatives contains 360 members and is elected by proportional representation, while the Senate is supposed to guarantee equal representation of states irrespective of size.



Russia's Election System

Chief Executive

The Chief Executive is the president, who is currently Vladimir Putin. Each Duma faction can nominate a candidate, but a candidate without endorsement can also get on the ballot by getting a minimum of 100,000 signatures. If no candidate gets an absolute majority in the first round of voting, the top two candidates with the most votes are pitted against each other in a second round. The president may only be president for two consecutive terms, which used to be four years each but has been changed to six years each starting with the 2012 winner. Vladimir Putin actually found a loophole and is in for his third term. After serving two consecutive terms, he took a term as the prime minister before returning to becoming president. This is his third non-consecutive term.

(Clarify how 1996 pres election contrasted with 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012) Since 2000, United Russia's candidate has won the presidential election.

Legislature
The Federation Council represents the upper house of the Russian legislature and the Duma represents the lower house of the Russian legislature. The Duma is elected to 5 year terms by a system of proportional representation while the Federation Council is composed of 2 appointed delegates from each region of Russia.

The Duma used to be elected half proportional, half FPTP. The result was many political parties being represented. The threshold was raised, however, so that political parties needed to gain at least 7% of the vote to win a seat (raised from 5%). This eliminated many political parties, consolidating people into four parties, and helping United Russia become more powerful.

Results of party list vote 2007/2011:
Party (2007)
% of votes
United Russia Party
64.3
Communist Party
11.6
Liberal Dems
8.1
Fair Russia
7.7
Agrarian Party
2.3

Party (2011)
% of votes
United Russia Party
49.3
Communist Party
19.2
Fair Russia
13.3
Liberal Dems
11.7
Yabloko
3.4




Iran's Election System


Chief Executive
Iran's chief executive is the president, who is directly elected in a two round system. The president must receive an absolute majority of the national vote and is elected for a four year term. Candidates for the presidency must be approved by the Guardian Council to run.


Legislature
The Majiles has 290 members who are elected for four year terms. Elections for the Assembly of Experts are held every six years. All candidates must be vetted by the Guardian Council, leading to the disqualification of many legislative candidates in each election. For example, prior to the 2004 Majiles elections, more than 30% of the the registered candidates were disqualified by the Guardian Council to ensure the Seventh Majiles would be dominated by conservatives.