The People's Republic of China

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1644-1912: Qing Dynasty
1912: End of dynastic rule, founding of the Republic of China under Sun Yat Sen.
1919: May Fourth Movement against European presence and control in certain parts of China.
1921: Founding of the Communist Party of China.
1927: Start of the Chinese Civil War between the Chinese Nationalist Party, Kuomintang (KMT) and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP).
1937: Beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War (World War II).
1949: Founding of the People’s Republic of China under Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party; KMT retreats to Taiwan with about 1.3 million people from Mainland China, rules Taiwan under the name of the Republic of China.
1960: Chinese and Soviet Union governments split over communist policies.
1966: Start of the Chinese Cultural Revolution, a crackdown by the CCP on political insurgencies that lead to the persecution of many revolutionaries, intellectuals and religious figures, the death of an estimated half a million people and chaos in much of the country. Emphasized "re-education" programs that sent intellectuals to the countryside to be more like the peasants.
1976: Mao Zedong dies.
1978: Chinese government opens borders.
1979: Government begins one-child policy.
1987: First KFC in China opens in Beijing, signifying the influence of American companies in China (there are now almost 2,000 KFCs in China).
1989: Tiananmen Square.
1997: Hong Kong returns to Chinese rule after 156 years under the British Crown.

Political Institutions



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Chinese Communist Party:

While there is an official state government of China, all of the power effectively lies in the hands of the CCP. The party has a membership of 80,269,000. The CCP's lowest level of organization is the National Party Congress, a weak body that meets for one week every five years and has little power. It elects the Central Committee, a slightly stronger body of 204 full and 167 alternate members that meets annually for about a week. The Central Committee has some power, but its most important role is electing the members of the Politburo and the Standing Committee. The Politburo has 25 members, nine of whom are also on the Standing Committee, which holds the most power of any party body. The Standing Committee is chaired by General Secretary Hu Jintao, who also serves as the President of China, and also contains Premier Wen Jiabao and seven other technocrats--totaling eight men trained as engineers and one Ph.D. in economics. These nine men, with the help of the Politburo, make almost all of the important decisions in China. Two other important bodies of the party are the Secretariat, which organizes the party's day-to-day operations and structure, and the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, which is used as a vehicle against corruption within the party.

Executive:
Chief of State: Hu Jintao
Hu Jintao is the current President of the People's Republic of China. The President must be 45 years old Chinese citizen and can serve a maximum of two consecutive terms. He has the power to issue Special Presidential Decrees, declare a state of emergency, and declare war. In China, the President is also the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, which removes any possibly of tension between the top communist leader and the head of state. Hu represents the fourth generation of Chinese officials. The fourth generation, born in the 1940s and 1950s, was heavily influenced by the Cultural
Revolution. Leaders of this new generation are gaining power at a younger age, and although they are less well traveled, they are better educated than their elders. They are called technocrats for their high level of technical expertise and experience in the bureaucracy. Hu Jintao, for example, graduated in 1965 from Qinghua University with a degree in hydroelectric engineering. All Chinese presidents after retirement are able to retain their position as the chief of the military.
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Hu is the President of China?


Edit: Beginning in 2012, former Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission (CMC) and First Secretary of the Communist Party Xi Jinping will succeed Hu Jintao as the next General Secretary. Beginning in 2013, Xi will also succeed Hu as the next Chinese President. It's important to distinguish these two positions, because the roles of chief executive and head of state are differentiated!

Future President/General Secretary Xi Jinping
Future President/General Secretary Xi Jinping

Premier: Wen Jiabao
The official powers of the premier of China include: presiding over the State Council (the cabinet); recommending the vice premier, ministers, and chairpersons of this council to the president for approval; presenting administrative policies to the Council; responding to questioning by the legislators (similar to the Question time in parliamentary systems); and asking the Council to reconsider its resolutions; countersigning laws by the President, etc. Note that he is a technocrat (he majored in geology) like Hu Jintao and other members of China's leadership. Wen Jiabao has often been referred to as a "people's premier" due to his warm personality and apparent concern for the people compared to previous Chinese officials. For example, in 2009 Wen did an online chat where he responded to the people's questions, which was an unprecedented event showing his desire to connect with ordinary Chinese citizens. Also, immediately following the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake, he flew over to guide rescue operations. This further reflects either his high regard for the Chinese people or the importance of good public relations to his Premiership. He is the Communist official with the highest popularity ratings.

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Hu knows? Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao doesn't seem to.


Legislative:
-> National People's Congress -- on paper this is the government's power hub. In reality, the President and his Politburo (Party leaders) control government policy. This "on paper" democracy fuels false legitimacy because it makes the public believe that they are a part of a fair system which, in fact, doesn't exist. However, the public doesn't actually believe that they are part of a fair system.

Judiciary:
-> Supreme People's Court-- a very weak institution with no history of independence.
In order to attract western investment, China has been moving towards set contact law (an example of legal reform). The Supreme People’s Court has three responsibilities: trying the cases that have the greatest influence in China, supervising the work of local courts and special courts at every level, and giving a judicial explanation of the law in the judicial process, which becomes effective nationally. The current leader of the Court is Xiao Yang.This is an example of recent legal reforms the Chinese government has instituted. One of the purposes of the creation of a Judiciary was to attract foreign investment by legitimizing laws pertaining to business, as foreign companies were reluctant to invest in a country that did not have legal guarantees for their investments.

Bureaucracy: Chinese bureaucracy is fairly intense due to the government control over sections of the economy, and bribery and corruption are common, as well as using guanxi or connections to get what you want. Many members of the bureaucracy go to schools in the Ivy League and other top colleges to train in specific areas (geology, city planning, etc.). These people are often referred to as technocrats.

Parties: The main and dominant party of China is the Communist Party. Other parties can be allowed to exist with the Communist Party's permission, but their participation and influence in the government is trivial and suppressed. For instance, in 1998, 80% of the delegates in the National People's Congress were Communist Party members. However, these other parties have been slowly gaining power in China and occasionally will cause problems for the Communist Party.

Constitution: The current constitution was adopted on December 4, 1982. This new constitution de-emphasized class struggle and emphasized the use of contributions and non-party groups to play a role in modernization. In the document, China is described as "a socialist state under the people's democratic dictatorship." The constitution guarantees rights to free speech, press, assembly, and demonstration, but these are superficial and easily trumped by the need of Communist Party prosperity.

Electoral Systems: People are free to get elected into minor village positions, but entrance into high positions of the national government requires connections and appointments. Villages become experiments with democracy, for free elections are allowed, where the Communist candidate sometimes loses.

Transfer of Power: One thing that is quite unique to China is that they have relatively peaceful transfer of power from one person to the next within an authoritarian regime. The transfer from Jiang Zemin to Hu Jintao went fairly smoothly. This is not usually a characteristic of an authoritarian regime.

Participation
Relevant Revolutions:
-> January 1, 1912: Republic replaces the Manchu Dynasty
-> October 1, 1949: Communist takeover - People's Republic of China established
-> October, 1966: Cultural Revolution (not an actual revolution, but very influential in terms of policy making and leader's position of the political spectrum)
-> Since the Deng Regime, China has moved away from its collective Maoist days to more open market. "Crossing the river by groping for stones."

Ideology: The 1912 revolution was based on overthrowing Manchurian tyrants and establishing a Westernized Republic. The Communist revolution of 1949 was driven by Mao's interpretation of Marx and Lenin.

Status of Suffrage: Under the constitution of the People's Republic of China, there is universal suffrage. Actual suffrage occurs at the local level with elections of local officials.

Significant Social Cleavages: Apart from the main ethnic group of Han Chinese which consists of 91% of the population there are 55 other minority groups who also live in China. Most of these other minority groups reside on farms and in the country while living the lives of peasants. While these peasants do not participate as much in the political process, their support is still imperative, as demonstrated by Mao during his Long March. The support of the peasants is important for internal legitimacy, as these peasants comprise a huge percentage of the population. Over 65% of the Chinese Population are still classified as Peasants.

Another important social cleavage is the division between Taiwan and China. While China still sees Taiwan as a part of the PRC, Taiwan seems to view itself as an independent state. However, Taiwan still lacks the legitimacy and foreign recognition to call itself a state (The US has refrained from supporting Taiwanese Independence retain good relations with the PRC). However, Taiwan remains strong in the economic realm, using its economic ties to try and gain the legitimacy it needs. Ironically, even though Taiwan desires a split from China, their economic ties make them extremely dependent mutual partners in the trading realm.

Role of Media: The media is limited by government regulations. For instance, Google searches of Tiananmen Square in China result in no results about the massacre of 1989. The government limits the functions of the media, but in recent years, the media is gaining small steps forward, by gaining some ability to criticize the government. Other than specific taboo subjects such as the Communist Party's legitimacy, the media is free to discuss other social issues and concerns. Discussion of taboo topics are also prevalent on internet forums and chat rooms, these while being cracked down upon still exist due to the increasing amount of health users. Media censorship has loosened up by the government. They are able to criticize party members for the lack of efficiency, but once that criticism has crossed a certain threshold where it starts to belittle the government or the party, then there will be hell to pay. Criticism of the government as a whole are not accepted by those in power, however small criticisms of corruption are sometimes allowed.

Recent controversy within the Chinese Media: Google found evidence of government spies attempting to hack into the Gmail accounts of human rights activists and keep tabs on their activities as well as locate them. This infringment on civil liberties, among other reasons, has led Google to pull its services as an internet search provider from China. The company also cited reasons related to the fact that the Chinese Government had force the company to censor its search results (The Great Firewall of China) a policy which they vehemently disagreed with but put up with until now. The departure of Google however has opened more doors for Baidu, China's leading internet search provider, founded by a Chinese national. Baidu however still does censor its search results (example: Tiananmen Square Massacre doesn't show up).

Most dissent is contained to the local governments, because the national government does not feel threatened by that kind of dissent, they do not feel as if they are being directly affected by complaints against local officials.

Status of Efficacy: Fairly low due to all the corruption (Guanxi). There are no national elections, so the people have a hard time getting their voice heard. There are rather competitive local village elections. The catch is most of the candidates are of the Communist party.

Role of Interest Groups: The government allows for certain interest groups to exist, such as the Communist Youth League, the All China Federal Trade Union, and the All China Women's Federation. These interest groups exist to strengthen the power of the Communist party and serve as channels for the Communist Party. In recent years, notably April 1999, when the Falun Gong organized in the streets of China, the government began to fear for its control over society, and banned the movement. The Chinese Government claimed that the Falun Gong movement was "a serious ideological and political struggle that would have a bearing on the future of the Communist Party and the State" and thus banned the group. Falun Gong suprised the government with their rally, linking arms around the Forbidden City in a sudden unexpected protest.

Role of Women / minority groups: One of the first popular moves of the CCP was the New Marriage Act which put husband and wife on equal footing in a marriage. Instead of getting married in front of their elders, they got married in front of a photo of Mao. During the GLF, women worked the farms much the same as men. That said, many of the old Confucian gender roles still have a presence in China, the female birthrate still lags behind the male birthrate, and sons are more valued than daughters. Due to this cultural value, illegal selective abortions of would be females and even infanticide take place.

There are officially 56 ethnic groups in China, with the Han Chinese being the dominant majority. An influential minority group is the ethnic Tibetans who are found in western China. The Communist party has made allowances for certain minority groups, such as a special exemption from the One Child Policy for Catholics, but minority groups often complain of being underrepresented in policy-making. In provinces/regions where minorities are dominant, such as Xinjiang, it is still the Han who hold the highest party posts, though minorities are gaining greater power.

Development of political elites: The development of political elites has for the most part been through the communist party and being in good favor with the party. Only recently have business leaders become political elites due to the increasing importance of the economy in China. Before then, political elites resembled military officers or of powerful people with experience in the army. This new political elite have now been called the technocrats. (sounds like a little rat)This development is surprising because the communist system discourages business elites.

Examples of Chinese Political Participation -> Grassroots Village elections since late 1980s.
1. Acceptable Participation
- Mass Mobilization campaigns (Anti-rightists, Great Leap, Cultural Rev.)
----No participation = opposition
----Used to identify class categories like counter revolutionaries and "rightists"
(these categories were banned after 1979)
- 1979 Reforms were that protests must uphold 4 principles.
----Socialist road, Marxist/Maoist thought, People's democratic dictatorship, and Leadership of the CP
- Minor protest against local governments allowed (nail houses)
2. Officially Unacceptable Participation
- Three reform protest movements since Mao.
----1978-79 = Democracy movement.
*call for the fifth moderization (democracy) on the "democracy wall"
*initially tolerated by Deng
*reformist leader eventually sentenced to 15 years in prison
*led to the CP's 4 principles of protest
---- 1986-87
---- 1989 Tiananmen Square
---------------------Student led protest demanding democracy, later leading to a disaster and many deaths
*initiated in May '89 on the death of ousted reformer Hu Yaobang.
*protest about openness of leadership/corruption
*became well organized as students and workers coordinated outside CP
*June 4th, 1989 = PLA sent in by Li Peng to end protests.
Power
Where Sovereignty rests: Power rests in Hu Jintao (The President and General Secretary), and the Politburo. The system can be explained as "a dictatorship of ever-expanding elites within a self-selecting elite." On paper the government is set up in a bottom up approach with the National Peoples Congress originating ideas which then travel up to the politburo. However in reality the ideas come from the top down
Impact of Supranational groups: The most troublesome supranational group to China is the World Trade Organization, which has come down hard on China in the past for unfair trade practices and may still yet over China's fixed currency exchange rate. Because of these issues, China has needed to strengthen contract law, which is an example of legal reform.
Impact of Globalization: Globalization has sparked a capitalist spirit within the Communist nation. This has led to the formation of Special Economic Zones (SEZs) such as Hong Kong where free trade is permitted. Not only is free trade promotes but it is the SEZs that make China a mixed economy because in these sones free market policy is promoted and allowed (these zones are mostly on the port cities or near them). Globalization has also brought wealth to the entire country, predominantly the port cities. Despite concentrations of wealth in the ports, globalization has also brought enough wealth to bring radios and other technologies to the countryside. MNCs have broke into the Chinese market promoting the ideal of McWorld. The focus of the younger generation is no longer of supporting the glorious Communist revolution but rather to become rich. Pressures from foreign countries have also surrounded China's impact on the environment. China's face-paced growth is contributing more and more to pollution. However, China has not buckled under pressure to slow their industries down as evidenced by China's refusal to sign the Kyoto Protocol. China, along with newly industrializing countries, claim that it is unfair that industrialized countries want to implement emission restrictions only after the industrialized countries have ruined the environment with their industrialization in the 20th century.
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The Future of China's Impact on the World

Examples of Fragmentation: There are several regions on the periphery of China who have shown streaks of independence, such as Tibet, Taiwan, and western, predominately Muslim provinces, like Xianjong. However, any attempts to usurp the authority of the CCP are brutally quashed, often by military force. This is effective in China only because of the remoteness of any ethnic minorities (ie. the Uighur peoples in Xianjong being so geographically isolated) and the fact that most of China is ethnic Han.
Trends toward Federal or Unitary Government: A Communist state is by nature unitary, although recent local elections and Town/Village Enterprises have disseminated power slightly.
Rule of Law: One of the problems with Chinese law is its lax contract laws, which cause problems for Western companies used to dealing with strict contracts. This issue is being addressed by the Chinese government and improving slowly. But an even greater problem is the vagueness and ambiguity of many laws and thus are subject to governmental interpretation and are characterisitic of less-democratic nations. This problem is being addressed and we have seen recent changes in laws so that less ambiguity is present and that the government seems more rule by law rather than having rule of law. This is why as foreign investments in China increases, the need for better laws and a more clarified and unified policy is essential to gaining the trust of foreign corporations.
The Chinese government uses Rule BY Law instead of Rule of Law. Rule BY Law means the government doesn't necessarily abide by its own laws, and rather uses the law to keep itself in power; this is common in many authoritarian governments.

Policy
Democratization: The national government is still very elite and self-electing, but local provinces are becoming more and more democratic. This adds to China's legitimacy, because on the outside it appears the Chinese government is moving to more democratic ways, yet these local positions are relatively powerless. Usually deciding on factory issues and local infrastructure projects.

Political scientists are very unwilling to associate democratization with China, as there is very little evidence to suggest that democratization is taking place. Small events such as attempts by dissidents to register an opposition party may suggest the beginning of democratic growth. Some would argue that the emergence of capitalism in the economy will eventually lead to a democratic political movement, many political scientists are not willing to make prediction about what will happen in the long run.

NOTE: ECONOMIC LIBERALIZATION DOES NOT NECESSARILY EQUAL POLITICAL LIBERALIZATION!(Even though China has been opening up it's market, it has not necessarily been democratizing)
Role of government in economy: Although still technically a Communist state, China has embarked on a slow transition to free market, retaining control of some industries while opening up especially the east and south to private ownership and international investment. This opening began under Deng Xiaoping. Generally, it meant a shift from Northern/Manchurian industrialization and Beijing, which the government had heavily endorsed, to the areas along the Yangtze River, near Shanghai, and to the area around Hong Kong in the Guongdong province. Specifically, the government has allowed the creation of Special Economic Zones (SEZs) in places like Shenzhen, an edge city outside of Hong Kong whose population has skyrocketed. China has decentralized a lot making everything private, and now big agriculture corporations are pushing out the private farmers. 40% of chinese workforce is still in agriculture
Because China has become more capitalist, the iron wages, food, and healthcare aren't have become less guaranteed. This may lead to problems in the future.

Examples of Nationalism: Even though most of western society disagree with Chinese action in Tibet, CNN estimates that around 80% of Chinese people support the government in their actions. The recent cyber attacks against CNN for their biased treatment of the Tibet incident was carried out by Chinese people around the world. Both Taiwanese and Chinese people united against CNN reporter Jack Cafferty when he made derogatory remarks about Chinese products on his news show.

Status of Civil Liberties: Although China has undertaken some elements of decentralization through Township Village Enterprises, and capitalism through Special Economic Zones like Hong Kong, the government is still criticized for restricting civil liberties. The repression of religion in China, In the case of Falun Gong, the government claims that it is fighting a cult, that the persecution through extortion and prisoning of Falun Gong followers is apt. The same religious persecution occurred in Tibet which forced the Dalai Lama to flee mainland China. Recently as well, blind and outspoken political activist Chen Guangcheng was imprisoned and had to be rescued and then exiled by and to the United States because of his dissension from the Chinese government. Clearly, the Chinese government is still willing to make an example out of particularly objectionable individuals.

Civil Society/Social Capital: Civil society in China is relatively weak as China chooses to punish anyone who opposes the government. The Chinese government has absolute control over politics and seeks to maintain its position and stability through the eradication of the opposition. One perfect example of this suppression is the events in Tiananmen Square where the government violently put down student protests in 1989

Enviornmental Policy
Water and air pollution are major concerns in most urban area of the country due to China's economic progression. In recent years the CCP and the government have placed greater importance on enviornmental protection, and the development of clean energy. Economic growth, however remains the top priority. Some of China's enviornmental policies include:
- Reversing deforestation through forest planning programs
- Signing international agreements to phase out pesticides/enviornmental pollutants
- Encouraging use of solar and wind energy
- Source reduction

Recent policy developments:
Status of political legitimacy: China's government has attempted to use corporatism to reestablish political legitimacy. By establishing certain interest groups and only allowing people to express concerns and opinions through those interest groups, China's government was hoping to help promote the legitimacy of the CCP. However, unlike in Mexico, people were still punished by the government for speaking out against the government, which made the whole idea of expressing ones ideas through interest groups completely pointless.

Elections in villages for lesser positions that have relatively little impact on the country's government are some efforts undertaken by the Chinese government to improve political legitimacy.

China Economic Reforms
1) Deng's plan: Agricultural Decollectivation - agriculture = mostly free market without land ownership
2) State Enterprises:
  • operate according to central governmetn plan
  • commodity prices, production and wages set by bureaucracy
  • no growth in mid 8-s
  • downsizing has begun with mass urban unemployment
  • mostly big industries
3) Collective Enterprises
  • Begin with "special economic zones" in Shanghai (SE China)
  • Local government control
  • more autonomy
  • commodity prices, production, and wages set by market
  • mostly low=end export manufacuturing
  • double digit growth though 1990s
4)Private Enterprises
  • Private Control
  • Increasing Individual and foreign onwership
  • free market
  • rising importance in 21st century

China v. Russia: Economic Reforms
China:
  • Disciplined savings
  • education
  • open to foreign investment
  • experimented with free trade in SEZs.
  • emphasis on exports
  • open to technology
  • local planning
  • SLOW, much more stable economy than Russia


Russia:
  • Foreign Loans
  • Dependent on Natural Resources
  • More Industrialized
  • Political Reforms
  • FAST Shock Therapy was disastrous

Geography
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Size- 9,596,960 sq. km.; slightly smaller than the United States

Human Geography/Issues - China is highly mountainous (only 15% of the land is arable), and the population is highly concentrated in the flatter, more industrialized coastal regions where the majority of the factories are located. This has caused a an urban/rural divide between eastern and western provinces as western provinces have less developed infrastructures and poorer social services, though the government is attempting to close this gap. There is also a large "floating population" of workers from rural areas of the country who migrate within China to find work in the eastern portion of the country.
Minorities tend to live in the "fringes" of the country, with Uyghurs and Tibetans in the far west of the country, and Mongols and Manchurians in the north.

China Vocabulary
Cadre - a permanent member of a party, in this case the communist party. Cadres existed historically in Communist China as small factions of Mao Zedong's Communist Party who could maintain the party for as long as needed.

Campaign- a way party leaders receive what they want to accomplish by mobilizing its people.

Capitalist Roader - a moderate CCP member. This term was used in a derogatory fashion during the Cultural Revolution.

Chiang Kai-shek - Nationalist (KMT (Kuomintang) party) leader of China before the Communist takeover in 1949. After that, he became the first president of the exiled Nationalists in Taiwan. Also referred to as "The Peanut" by some Americans stationed in China during World War II, he was generally considered to be an incompetent, ill-informed leader. His wife, on the other hand, was a far more capable politician and leader, and held a considerable amount of influence behind the scenes.

Confucianism - a Chinese philosophy that, most importantly, stresses order and hierarchy. In essence, people should respect their ancestors and family members; with this mindset, Confucianism's purpose was to establish a code for social conduct. Discipline in work, respect towards elders, rigid social hierarchy. Much of the court system is still based on Confucianism.

Cult of personality - In communist systems, this refers to the excessive adulation of a leader, in this Case Mao Zedong. In China, the leader of the PLA, Lin Bao, used his power to create a cult of personality for Mao, attributing all of China's success and glory to Mao (see Little Red Book). This movement got very out of hand though, as some news stories published that the 70 year old leader had swam 6 miles in an hour.

Cultural Revolution - The Cultural Revolution was aimed at the intellectuals and those who opposed Mao's leadership and ideals. However, most historians would characterize this time period as simply chaotic; the younger generation formed groups such as the Red Guard and helped rid Mao of his opposition. Many intellectuals were stripped of their titles and jobs to be sent to the countryside to work. Even trained circus horses were stripped of their jobs and luxuries to be sent back to the fields. In essence, anything that had to do with the Western Culture was eliminated, as supporters of capitalism were quickly dealt with. The movement of intellectuals and college students to the "countryside" to experience the life of the peasantry (communist idealism) was known as the process of "re-education".

Democracy Movement - The first large, reasonably well-organized protest movement against the CCP and it policies, it began with protests as a reaction to the death of Hu Yaobang, a respected reformist leader. The movement was dominated by students. This played a large role in the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.

Democracy Wall - A wall erected by Deng Xiaoping that allowed Beijing democracy activists were allowed to record news and ideas on a designated wall in the city from December 1978. In line with the party's new policy of "seeking truth from facts," the activists were encouraged to criticize the Gang of Four and failed government policies. But the CCP became dismayed as more and more posters began to call for a complete overhaul and even the abolishment of the CCP. As the current leadership and policies came under fire, a new wave of party intolerance at political dissent began. Overnight, the wall was torn down. Two of the more prominent leaders of the poster movement were placed on public trial and given heavy jail sentences.

Democratic centralism- Allocating power to the party elite; used by Lenin. Similar to Mao's mass line theory in which ideas rise from the people to elite decision makers in the Politburo. In theory, lower bodies (National Party Congress) of the CCP select the members of the upper groups (i.e. Politburo.) In reality, the members of the upper groups approve membership in the lower bodies.

Deng Xiaoping - De facto ruler of China from the late 1970s to 1997, and technocrat. Born into an elite family and studied Confucian classics as a youngster. He joined Mao in his effort to organize in the countryside and took part in the Long March. After the CCP came to power, he held a number of high positions in the party hierarchy and gradually aligned with Liu Shaoqi and others seeking more pragmatic approaches to economic policy, and was therefore purged during the Cultural Revolution, and once again after Mao's death. He came back into the Chinese political life in 1978, and even though he never held a high position, he was able to exercise power from behind the scenes. Resigned from government in 1989 and died in 1997. opened China to foreign investment. Recruited more intellectuals into governmental positions as oppose to military leaders. Enforced the one-child policy. Don't be fooled, Deng Xiaoping was still a solid communist and he quashed democratization efforts like the Democracy Wall ('78) and Tiannamen Square. ('89)

Extraterritoriality- European laws that were in action during the 19th and 20th centuries in parts of China, Korea, and Japan. Extraterritoriality rights allowed Europeans to be subject to European laws within China.

Factionalism- China is different from the USSR in that we know of more factionalism within the CCP. For four decades, we know that the Chinese Politburo has pragmatic factions who are more open to economic liberalization and hard-line factions who support more government control over the economy and the political system.

Much like Great Britain's cabinet, internal disputes are expected to remain behind closed doors. In public, Politburo members are expected to support the decisions that they might privately oppose. This is known as "collective responsibility."

Falun Gong - Chinese spiritual movement suppressed by the government since the late 1990s. The government outlawed it, saying it was cult-like and became a concern for the government because it was such a well-organized group and beyond its control. This was only after they had a massive protest that came out of nowhere. Since then the Falun Gong have remained active overseas, trying to recruit more members. The rise of Falun Gong is yet another example of the increasing religiosity throughout the world ("Jihad"). Despite the presence of such groups the majority of Chinese remain nonreligious. Though Buddhism and Confucianism are the more common religions, they can be considered as sets of beliefs and traditions rather than religions that demand strict adherence or worship.

Four Modernizations - In 1973 Zhou Enlai's proposed a system of government that focused on developing industry, military, agriculture, and science in China. It was most notably used by Deng Xiaoping. The Four Modernizations have been the focus of the country's official policy goals every since.

Gang of Four - Four leading radical figures played a dominant political role during the later years of the Cultural Revolution. Hardliners Jiang Qing (Mao Zedong's fourth wife), Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan, and Wang Hongwen appeared likely to seize power. But several weeks after Mao's death in September 1976, they were instead arrested and blamed for the excesses of the Cultural Revolution. Sentences for their "anti-party" deeds ranged from death (later commuted to life in prison) to 20 years in prison.

Great Leap Forward - this movement happened in reaction to the Hundred Flowers Campaign. This movement was mainly a push to change the Chinese system into one of socialism and communism. Collective Agriculture was stressed while industrialization was pushed forward. Intellectuals, who were the main participants and complainers during the Great Leap Forward, were forced to do manual labor so that they could be closer to the people. However, this movement failed. Industrial production declined while the country side became a center of pandemonium where millions starved to death.

Household Responsibility System
A system widely established by Deng Xioping in the 80s which replaced collective farming and continues to this day. Farmland is now contracted out for thirty years or more by the villages to families who take responsibility for the production and marketing of crops. While the villages still technically own the land, the freeing of the rural economy from the constraints of the communal system has led to increases in agricultural productivity and income for most farm families.

Hu Jintao - Current President of China since 2003. Born in 1942, he is the first leader to have come of age after the communist revolution. In 1992, he became a member of the seven-person Standing Committee of the Politburo. Hu quickly gained the support of his colleagues and emerged as the obvious first member of the "fourth generation" of leaders to take over the party and the country. He is known for his reluctance to state his views too strongly, and has been heard to say that political success "requires resolve, attention to concrete matters, and courage making decisions."
-can be labeled as the "technocrat"

Hundreds Flowers Campaign - "Let a hundred flowers bloom and a thousand points of view contend" - this phrase by Mao describes this campaign to allow people to speak their minds about the current situation in China. Essentially, intellectuals were given much more freedom to express themselves and their ideas. The increased freedom, like Russia during Gorbachev's Glastnost, destabilized the government. While the Soviet Union responded with implosion, the Chinese government responded with reactionism.

Infanticide- This is a negative effect of the one child policy created by Deng in 1978-79. Parents with more then one child would be forced to kill or abandon their children especially if they were female. The rise of infanticide in China has created a huge gender schism, where in China there are millions more men than women. This has caused an increase in 'imported brides' from Southeast Asia, a source of tension in Chinese culture.

The Iron Rice Bowl- The Maoist practice of government guaranteed employment, a certain standard of living (albeit a low one), and a base level of cradle-to-grave benefits to most of the urban and rural labor force. Economic reforms in post-Mao China have led to "breaking the iron rice bowl", and getting rid of these benefits in order to increase work motivation and lower governmental and business costs, dismantling the social services safety net. The breaking of the iron rice bowl has increased people's motivation to work, however it has also caused a sharp increase in urban unemployment.

Jiang Zemin - Former President of China and successor to Deng Xiaoping. Jiang was involved with the underground cpc organization from 1943 to 1946. Jiang was also elected president of the Peoples Republic of China in 1993. He retired from being Chairman of the Central Military Commision of the Communist Party of China, in 2004. Jiang Zemin and Li Peng, both trained as engineers, were among the technocrats of the third generation to be recruited to the central committee in the 1980s. He came of age during a period of socialist transformation and had their views shaped by the Soviet-inspired industrial drive of the 1950s. Jiang also rose to power unexpectedly in the midst of virulent factional infighting during and after the 1989 Tiananmen crisis unlike current President Hu.

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Jiang Qing - Fourth (and last) wife of Mao Zedong and one of the leaders of the Gang of Four, a radical faction in the CCP during the Cultural Revolution.

Kuomintang / Nationalist Party - Nominally in power from 1911 to 1949; they fled the mainland to Taiwan, where they remained in power until sometime after 2000 when they became the minority party in the Taiwanese government.

Long March - Retreat to Western China after Mao's repression by the Nationalists during WWII. This march later won him great fame and allowed him to experiment with Marxist agricultural ideals in the villages of west China. Mao's troops treated the peasants well and equally, paying for food and supplies while breaking up large estates and giving the land to the peasants. Overall, the Long March helped mobilize the CCP and help them gain support for their cause.

Little Red Book - From May 1966, student members of the Communist Party were encouraged to carry copies of Mao's Little Red Book of quotations. Acting under Mao's leadership, these "Red Guards" used his quotations in their mission to weed out intellectuals. With themes such as Correcting Mistaken Ideas and All Reactionaries are Paper Tigers, the quotations became the standard by which all revolutionary efforts were judged.

Mao Zedong - Most important leader of the Communist Revolution and Chairman of the Communist party from 1949 to his death in 1976. Mao's rise to power started with the simple argument that a revolution in China was needed and that it would have to be based on mass mobilization of the countryside and the peasants. Through his Long March, Mao was able to gain the support of the peasants for his cause. Mao's brilliance lies in his ability to take Marxism and make it appeal to the masses of Chinese people. Like the Ayatollah Khomeini in Iran, or Lenin in Russia, Mao was able to develop a Cult of Personality.Mao's economic reform guaranteed employment. His most important contribution to Marxist political philosophy was the role of peasantry in building socialism. What ruined Mao was the Great Leap Forward. Like Stalin, he focused on massive agricultural collectivization and mass industrialization. But it was a huge failre that led to the Great Famine. His return was the Cultural Revolution. "Everything revolutionary is good." His Red Guards (students) crush his opponents. People who were once in authority were not trusted.

Mass campaigns - movements ushered by Mao soon after the CCP takeover, including the Hundred Flowers Campaign, the Great Leap Forward, and others. The CCP relied on mass campaigns much more than the Soviets, and with these campaigns the party sought to mobilize the masses to meet its goals, which could be anything from eliminating a bunch of flies to fully reshaping Chinese culture.

Mass line - This was Mao's idea that ideas should come from the masses of people. Then, those ideas should be worked around and concentrated into cohesive ideas and then represented to the masses until they support and embrace these ideas. Once the masses embrace these ideas, they should be tested and put into action by the masses to see if these ideas actually work. Ultimately, everything comes from the masses to the masses.
-formally known as democratic centralism

Military Affairs Committee - One of the leading groups of the CCP under Deng Xiaoping.

Nomenklatura- The act of appointing those close to the power elite to key position jobs; method used in Soviet Union and other communist countries. Nomenklatura maintains control through key agencies.

People’s Liberation Army - It is the military of the People's Republic of China (PRC).The PLA is the world's third largest military force, with approximately 3 million members, and has the world's largest (active) standing army, with approximately 2.25 million members. It was called the Red Army until June. 1946.The PLA is formally under the command of the Central Military Commission of the CCP; there is also an identical commission in the government, but it has no clear independent functions.

Red Guard - this was a group of middle school, high school, and university students that decided to take the matters of the Cultural Revolution into their own hands. Most of these students discontinued their education and essentially became tools for Mao. For instance, anyone who opposed Mao (capitalist roaders) were eliminated by the Red Guard.
Sino-Soviet split

Socialist Market Economy- What the PRC currently calls its economy-the fact that China's economy now combines both elements of socialism and capitalism. While market reforms have largely influenced the economy, CCP leadership still has the power to make policies that decide the direction of the economy and national and local bureaucrats have a large amount of control over the production and distribution of goods and resources.

Special Economic Zone - Regions generally in southern and eastern coastal China that have been economically liberalized and opened to international investment. These SEZ's have been wildly successful and the main reason for China's economic explosion. An example of such a zone is Shenzhen.

Special Administrative Regions: Currently Hong Kong and Macao fall under this classification. This regions have a large deal of autonomy and have separate political systems, as well as capitalism under the "one country, two systems" guiding principle of Deng Xiaoping.

Sun Yat-sen - known as the first westernized Chinese leader, he decided that the only way for China to regain its glory was to switch to the culture of the West. Sun launched 11 failed military coups. Until 1925 Sun Yat- sen created nationalist party/ Kuomintang (KMT).

Technocrats- Bureaucrats who are trained as economists or in related fields, have extensive education (Hu Jintao is an example of a technocrat); tend to be more pragmatic in their policy making. In theory, this benefits the leadership of the country because the individuals making the policy are experts in the field they are making policy in. The fields do not have to be in anything related to running a country (examples: science, technology, agriculture).

TVEs - Township Village Enterprises. These represent the middle ground in terms of more and less government control. They are local entities that are being monitored.

Tiananmen Square - A public square outside the Forbidden City. 1989; A pro-democracy protest led by students and intellectuals against the Chinese Communist Party. The Chinese military cracked down on the students and many civilians were injured/killed.
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Uyghur people- Concentrated in the Xinjiang province, the Uyghur people are labeled terrorists by the Chinese government, especially after 9/11. Most feel this is just a ruse to supress the highly rebellious Islam population. This region and Tibet are the ones that most often try to revolt. The Han majority, or the ethnic Chinese, are offered incentives by the government to come to the Xinjiang province as they are in Tibet, in order to dilute the Uyghurs.

Wen Jiabao - Premier (Prime Minister) of China. Wen has been the third-ranking member of the Politburo Standing Committee, China's highest ruling council, since November 2002.

Xinjiang- Northwest region primarily composed of muslims that has various militant separatist factions.

Zhou Enlai - Zhou was a fugitive from the Kuomintang regime when Chiang Kai Shek broke with the communists. The Long March veteran became Mao Zedong's premier and foreign minister after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949. He headed the Chinese Communist delegation to the Geneva Conference of 1954 before relinquishing the foreign ministry, while retaining the premiership. Zhou maintained his position through all of Communist China's ideological upheavals, including the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution, although he was was periodically targeted by Red Guards for attempting to shelter its victims. He died in 1976.

GIVE YOURSELF A QUIZ: (MATCH NAME/PERIOD TO THE CORRECT DESCRIPTION)
1. Sun Yat-sen
2. Chiang Kai Shek
3. Mao Zedong
4. Let 100 Flowers Bloom
5. Lean to One Side
6. Cultural Revolution
7. Great Leap Forward

A. Led to the Chinese Communist Revolution
B. Flees to Taiwan
C. First Westernized leader of the Republic of China
D. Mao uses Chinese youth to attack Communist Party opponents.
E. Mao's initial movement toward a centralized command economy. Re-education of urban intellectuals, and rising support for Mao as supreme leader of China.
F. Mao allows intellectuals to critique Communist leadership.
G. Mao promotes drastic industrialization and agricultural collectivization.

~answers = 1c 2b 3a 4f 5d 6e 7g
some fun gapminder facts:
in 1998 there is a sharp increase in the unemployment rate in china, from 5% to 10.3%. As we know, in 1997 Hong Kong was returned to China rule after a century and a half of British control. This likely played a significant role in the shift in the trend of unemployment.